Liao Dynasty (uncertain)
Jin Dynasty (uncertain)
10th Century - 13th Century
Three Color Glaze
Pottery figure of luohan found in cave near Yizhou, present day Yixian county in Hebei province. Soft white pottery with a polychrome glaze. Somewhat larger than life size. The Luohan is seated cross-legged in the conventional attitude of meditation. Luohans, also known as arhats, are accomplished Buddhist disciples. They are one of the only Buddhist images that offer a sculptor the opportunity for realism. The portrait-like qualities of this luohan, with his unique and expressive facial features, are emphasized to convey his mortality. He wears an outer garment called the kāṣāya, which is draped to purposely show the right shoulder and arm, revealing the green undergarment, a symbol that he is trying to help save sentient beings. This luohan was originally part of a group of sixteen or eighteen figures, although luohan groups can reach as many as five hundred. Luohan like this often were placed along the sidewalls in a monastery hall. Eight of the group survive in other collections, including the British Museum, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, the William Rockhill Nelson Gallery, the Royal Ontario Museum, the Matsukata Collection and the Museum of Fine Arts, Boston.
Gift of A. G. Worch, 1914
Current & Past Exhibitions:
Chinese Rotunda (1968)
Chinese Halls (1941 - 1966)
Exhibition of the Art of the Far East ( Dec 1914)
[Article] Steinhardt, Nancy S. 2010. "The Luohan that Came from Afar". Expedition: The Magazine of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology. 52 (3): 7-8.
: Page/Fig./Plate: pg. 7
[Article] Steinhardt, Nancy S. 2008. "The Chinese Rotunda". Arts of Asia. 38 (5): 83-95. : Page/Fig./Plate: Pg. 84, Fig. 14
[Article] Smithies, Richard. 2001. "A Luohan from Yizhou in the University of Pennsylvania Museum". Orientations. 32 (2): 51-56. : Page/Fig./Plate: 51
[Book] Horne, Lee C. 1985. Introduction to the Collections of The University Museum.
: Page/Fig./Plate: 60
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. F. 1941. The Chinese Collections of The University Museum: A Handbook of the Principal Objects. The University Museum Bulletin. 9 (2-3) : Page/Fig./Plate: Frontispiece
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. F. 1939. Chinese Art at the University Museum. Parnassus. 11 (1) : Page/Fig./Plate: 7-11
[Article] Gray, Basil. 1936. Chinese Sculpture: Examples at Burlington House. The Connoisseur: An Illustrated Magazine for Collectors. Volume 97 (February) : Page/Fig./Plate: pg. 64, pg. 76 (ill.)
[Catalogue] Royal Academy of Arts. 1935. Catalogue of the International Exhibition of Chinese Art. : Page/Fig./Plate: Pg. 209, No. 2438, Pg. 224, 2438 (illustration)
[Article] Jayne, Horace H. F. 1935. The Museum's Loan to Burlington House ( for International Exhibition of Chinese Art held in London 1935-36). The University Museum Bulletin. 6 (1) : Page/Fig./Plate: 7-11, pl. 6.
[Article] Springer, Anton. 1929. Die ostasiatische Kunst, in 1929. Handbuch der Kunstgeschichte. Volume 6. 43, 50, pl. 68. : Page/Fig./Plate: 111, 112
[Book] March, Benjamin. 1929. China and Japan in our Museums. : Page/Fig./Plate: 88
[Catalogue] The University Museum. 1917. Section of Oriental Art. : Page/Fig./Plate: No. 1, page 177
[Article] Bishop, Charles W. 1916. Notes on Chinese Statuary. The Museum Journal. Volume VII (No. 3): 152-177. : Page/Fig./Plate: 163, figure 165
[Article] Sayce, A. H. 1916. Oriental Art in the University Museum. The Museum Journal. Volume VII (No. 3): 149-151. : Page/Fig./Plate: Fig. 165
[Book] Hobson, Robert L. 1915. Chinese Pottery and Porcelain : An Account of the Potter's Art in China From Primitive Times to the Present Day. Volume 1. : Page/Fig./Plate: 35
[Article] Bishop, Charles W. 1914. A Pottery Statue of A Lohan. The Museum Journal. Volume V (No. 3) : Page/Fig./Plate: 129-135, fig. 69.
[Catalogue, Exhibition] University of Pennsylvania. 1914. Catalogue of an Exhibition of the Art of the Far East. : Page/Fig./Plate: No. 7
[Article] Kummel, Otto. 1914. Die Ausstellung Der Sammlung Perzynski Im Berliner Kunstgewerbemuseum. Ostasiatische Zeitschrift. Jahrg. 2 (Heft 4 Januar/Maerz): 457-461.
[Article] Perzynski, Friedrich. 1913. Jagd auf Gotter. Die neue Rundschau. (October) : Page/Fig./Plate: 1427
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