Repatriations

 
2013 Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina, Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma, and United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians Read More
2011 Tlingít T’akdeintaan Clan of Hoonah, Alaska Read more
2008 Hui Mālama I Nā Kūpuna O Hawai’i Nei, the Hawai’i Island Burial Council, and the Office of Hawai’i Affairs jointly Read More
2007 Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma Read more
2006 Sisseton Wapheton Oyate Tribe, South Dakota Read more
2005 Sac & Fox Tribe of Mississippi in Iowa Read more
2003 Miami Tribe of Oklahoma Read more
2002 Native Village of Kotzebue Read more
2002 Comanche Tribe of Oklahoma Read more
2002 White Mountain Apache Tribe Read more
2002 Organized Village of Grayling Read more
2000 Klamath Indian Tribe of Oregon Read more
2000 Sac & Fox Tribe of Oklahoma Read more
2000 Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe Read more
1999 Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska Read more
1998 Oneida Nation of New York & Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin Read more
1998 & 2000 Cayuga Nation of New York Read more
1994 & 2000 Chugach Alaska Corporation Read more
1991, 1996, 1997, 1999 Hui Mālama I Nā Kūpuna O Hawai’i Nei Read more
1990 Zuni Pueblo Read more
 

2013, Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina, Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma, and United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians
Through consultation with the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians of North Carolina, the Cherokee Nation, Oklahoma, and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians, the human remains of six individuals were identified as Cherokee. The human remains were removed from unknown sites in Polk County, TN, Gilmer County, GA, and Cherokee County, NC by two different collectors, Dr. Joel Martin, US Army Medical Director at Fort Cass and Dr. James F.E. Hardy of Asheville, NC.

Archival documentation describes one of the individuals as “an Indian well known in the County…He was one of the greatest ball players in his tribe. While playing ball he slipped & fell & dislocated his spine & died immediately.” Museum documentation and a physical assessment of the human remains identified trauma consistent with the injuries in this account and injuries one might receive while playing the Cherokee stickball game. Historical records and consultation information provide accounts of men being seriously injured and dying while playing the Cherokee stickball game.

All of the human remains were part of a larger collection of crania housed at the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia (ANSP) referred to as the “Morton Collection.” In 1830, under the aegis of the ANSP, Dr. Samuel G. Morton began collecting human crania from a variety of sources around the world. The purpose of his study was to investigate the origins of human beings. In 1966, collections from the ANSP, including the Morton Collection, were transferred to the Penn Museum on permanent loan. In 1997 these collections were formally gifted to the Penn Museum where they are currently housed.

representatives from the Tribal Historic Preservation Office of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians visit the Penn Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology in September of 2013 to repatriate human remains.

In September 2013, representatives from the Tribal Historic Preservation Office of the Eastern Band of Cherokee Indians travelled to the Penn Museum to repatriate the humans remains jointly with the Cherokee Nation and the United Keetoowah Band of Cherokee Indians.



 

Notice of Inventory Completion

2011, Tlingít T’akdeintaan Clan of Hoonah, Alaska
Through Consultation with the Hoonah Indian Association (HIA) and the Huna Heritage Foundation (HHF), acting on behalf of the Huna Totem Corporation (HTC), and representing the Tlingít T’akdeintaan Clan of Hoonah, Alaska, eight Tlingit objects were found to meet the statutory definitions of sacred objects and/or objects of cultural patrimony and were repatriated to the Tribe in September, 2011.  The eight objects are one wooden box drum, one hide robe, two carved wooden masks, one carved wooden headdress, one head cover, one carved wooden rattle, and one carved wooden pipe.   In 1924, Louis Shotridge, a Tlingit Curator employed by the University of Pennsylvania Museum, purchased the eight objects as part of a collection of 44 objects referred to as the “Snail House Collection” for $500.00 from a Tlingit individual, Archie White (Dimitri Tukk’axaaw), headmaster of the T’akdeintaan Clan of Hoonah, Alaska, for the collections of the University of Pennsylvania Museum.  The cultural affiliation of the eight cultural items is the Tlingit T’akdeintaan clan of Huna, Alaska, as indicated through Museum records, and by consultation evidence presented by the Hoonah Indian Association (HIA) and the Huna Heritage Foundation (HHF), acting on behalf of the Huna Totem Corporation (HTC) representing the Tlingít T’akdeintaan Clan of Hoonah, Alaska.  The University proposed a joint curatorial agreement for the remaining 36 objects from this collection and one other object, however, the claimants rejected this offer. The Museum hopes to be able to negotiate a complete resolution of the claim in the near future.

Notice of Intent to Repatriate Cultural Items

2008, Hui Mālama I Nā Kūpuna O Hawai’i Nei, the Hawai’i Island Burial Council, and the Office of Hawai’i Affairs jointly
Through consultation with several Hawaiian organizations the human remains of one individual were identified as Hawaiian. The human remains were collected from the Sandwich Islands by an unknown person at an unknown date, probably around 1905. It was accessioned by the Wistar Institute of Philadelphia at an unknown date, and no source information is available. The human remains were transferred to the Penn Museum on a long-term-loan in 1956. The Wistar Institute retained ownership of these human remains, but authorized the Penn Museum to handle the NAGPRA process in collaboration with Wistar and on its behalf.

During consultation, Hui Mālama I Nā Kūpuna O Hawai’i Nei, the Office of Hawaiian Affairs, and the Hawai’i Island Burial Council, submitted a joint request asking the Penn Museum to consider loaning the human remains to a Hawaiian institution so that the iwi would be on Hawaiian soil pending a determination of its cultural affiliation and completion of the repatriation process. Out of respect for the Hawaiian people and in order to return this individual to the Hawaiian homeland expeditiously, the Penn Museum worked closely with the Pu’uhonua o Honaunau National Park on the island of Hawai’i to work out a temporary loan and housing agreement for the human remains. The cranium was transferred to the Hawaiian facility in May 2006 remaining there until the remains were repatriated in February 2008.

Notice of Inventory Completion

2007, Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma
Through consultation with Mr. Francis Morris, Repatriation Coordinator, of the Pawnee Nation of Oklahoma, the human remains of one individual were identified as culturally affiliated with the Pawnee in 1999. At an unknown date, human remains representing one individual were removed from an unknown site by person(s) unknown. The cranium was labeled "Pawnee." At an unknown date, these human remains were donated to the University of Pennsylvania Museum by person(s) unknown. The Pawnee Nation requested that the University Museum retain physical control of these remains until 2007 when the remains were returned to the tribe for reburial.

Notice of Inventory Completion

2006, Sisseton Wapheton Oyate Tribe, South Dakota
Through consultation with the Tribal Historic Preservation Officer of the Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation and with the support of other affiliated groups, the human remains of one individual were repatriated to the Sisseton Wahpeton Oyate.  Sometime between 1830 and 1839, Dr. William C. Poole collected and sent the human remains of one individual to Dr. Samuel George Morton, President of the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia as a contribution to his collection of human crania. No known individual was identified.  From about 1830, the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia provided storage space for much of Dr. Morton’s collection, including the human remains, until his death in 1852.  In 1853, the collection was purchased from Dr. Morton’s estate and formally presented to the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia.  In 1966, Dr. Morton’s collection, including the human remains, was loaned to the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology until 1997, when the collection was formally gifted to the museum.

Collector’s records, museum documentation, and published sources (Morton 1839, 1840, and 1849; Meigs 1857) identify the human remains as those of a female “Dacota” Sioux warrior of Wisconsin and date them to the Historic period, probably to the early 19th century.  Scholarly publications indicate that Wisconsin was an area settled by the Dakota groups during the early 19th century.  The Dakota are the eastern group of the Sioux, and comprised of the Sisseton, the Wahpeton, and the Santee, who in turn are composed of the Wahpekute and Mdewakanton.  Dakota descendants are members of the Flandreau Santee Sioux Tribe of South Dakota; Lower Sioux Indian Community in the State of Minnesota; Prairie Island Indian Community in the State of Minnesota; Santee Sioux Nation, Nebraska; Shakopee Mdewakanton Sioux Community of Minnesota; Sisseton-Wahpeton Oyate of the Lake Traverse Reservation, South Dakota; Spirit Lake Tribe, North Dakota; and Upper Sioux Community, Minnesota.

In August 2006, a delegation from the Sissteon-Wahpeton Oyate travelled to the Penn Museum to repatriate the human remains, and members of Kitt-Fox Society performed a ceremony in the Warden Garden prior to the groups departure that day.

Notice of Inventory Completion

2005, Sac & Fox Tribe of Mississippi in Iowa
In 2000, the Sac & Fox Tribe submitted a repatriation claim for one wooden bowl as a “Sacred Object.” The bowl was purchased in 1910 by Mark Raymond Harrington from a Fox Chief, named Pushetonequa (Pu ci ta ni kwe), in Iowa during an ethnological expedition funded by George Gustav Heye, a member of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology Board of Overseers. The bowl was received by the Museum as part of an exchange with Mr. Heye and catalogued into the permanent collection in 1930. Based on consultation and available literature, wooden bowls of this type are needed by traditional Meskwaki (Fox) religious leaders in order to pray to and communicate with their gods. Bowls of this type were and still are used in many complex and traditional religious practices and ceremonies, such as the Sacred Bundle Ceremony, the Ceremonial Feast to Honor the Departed, the Ceremonial Naming Feast, the Return of the Name Feast, and Ceremonial Adoptions. The University concluded that it has “Right of Possession” of the object. However, in recognition of the significance of the sacred object to the tribe’s contemporary religious practices and its historical significance and consistent with the intent of NAGPRA, the University voluntarily returned the bowl to the Sac & Fox Tribe in 2005.

Notice of Intent to Repatriate

2003, Miami Tribe of Oklahoma
The remains of twelve individuals were found through consultation and museum documentation to be culturally affiliated with the Miami Tribe of Oklahoma and the Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. The human remains were collected from sites in the Great Lakes regions between 1800 and 1853 by several collectors. The remains were donated to the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and the human remains ultimately became part of what has often been referred to as the “Morton Collection.” The collection was loaned to the Penn Museum in 1966 and then, to facilitate the implementation of NAGPRA, was legally transferred to the Penn Museum on September 15, 1997. With the support of the Peoria Tribe, representatives from the Miami Tribe travelled to the Penn Museum in November 2003 to repatriate the twelve human remains for reburial.

Notice of Inventory Completion

2002, Native Village of Kotzebue
Through consultation with the NAGPRA Coordinator, Kotzebue IRA, the human remains of one individual were determined to be culturally affiliated with the Native Village of Kotzebue and subsequently repatriated in December of 2002. In 1895, this individual was removed from an unknown location on the Choris Peninsula in Kotzebue Sound, AK by Mr. Benjamin Sharp. Mr. Sharp collected these human remains for the Academy of Natural Sciences in Philadelphia and the human remains ultimately became part of what has often been referred to as the “Morton Collection.” The collection was loaned to the Penn Museum in 1966 and then, to facilitate the implementation of NAGPRA, was legally transferred to the Penn Museum on September 15, 1997.

Notice of Inventory Completion

2002, Comanche Tribe of Oklahoma
Through consultation with the NAGPRA Official of the Comanche Tribe, the human remains of one individual were determined to be culturally affiliated with this group and subsequently repatriated in November of 2002. At an unknown date prior to 1953, human remains of a Comanche chief were removed from an indeterminate location by A.E. Carothers. Mr. Carothers collected these human remains for the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia and the human remains ultimately became part of what is commonly referred to as the “Morton Collection.” The collection was loaned to the Penn Museum in 1966, and was legally transferred to the Penn Museum in 1997 to facilitate the implementation of NAGPRA.

Notice of Inventory Completion

2002, White Mountain Apache Tribe
In 2000, the White Mountain Apache Tribe submitted a repatriation claim to the Museum for one Gaan (Mountain Spirit) headdress as a “sacred object” and an “object of cultural patrimony.” The headdress was purchased in 1931 by the Denver Art Museum from Mr. O.L.N. Foster. No documentation is available surrounding its acquisition. In 1959, the Penn Museum received it in an exchange with the Denver Art Museum. According to the tribe’s NAGPRA representative, the headdress is “a unique sacred object hand crafted to support the transformation of an individual Apache (Ndee) girl into womanhood” and “once such a headdress has been used by the Gaan spirits it is put away-retired forever as a means for the perpetuation of the healing and harmonizing derived from the ceremony.” Further, it was explained that “the headdress should never have been removed from its resting place, and its repatriation will contribute to the reestablishment of harmony, health, and good will.” The University of Pennsylvania determined that the headdress is an object of central importance to the White Mountain Apache Tribe and that it qualified as an “object of cultural patrimony.” The headdress was repatriated to the tribe on January 10, 2002.

Notice of Intent to Repatriate

2002, Organized Village of Grayling
In 2002, the Penn Museum repatriated nineteen wooden masks to the Central Alaskan village of Grayling, through its Tribal Corporation, Denakkanaaga, Inc.

The masks were acquired during a Museum collecting expedition in 1935. They were recovered from a "refuse heap" behind a collapsed ceremonial house at Holikachaket, an ancestral village of Grayling. According to the collector, the masks were once used in the Mask Dance or the Feast of the Mask. The purpose of this ceremony was to insure a continued supply of fish and game by thanking the spirits of the animals.

After careful analysis, the University of Pennsylvania found that the masks are objects of central importance to the Native Village of Grayling and could not have been alienated by any one individual. Penn Museum staff worked closely with representatives of the Organized Village of Grayling who had received a NPS NAGPRA Repatriation Grant. The masks were repatriated on October 26, 2002.

Notice of Intent to Repatriate

2000, Native Village of Unalakleet
In July of 2000 the Museum repatriated one human remain to the Native Village of Unalakleet, Alaska. The remains were recovered in 1969 from an archaeological excavation east of Kouwegok Slough near Unalakleet conducted by the University of Pennsylvania. Throughout the process of repatriation the Museum consulted with the Native Villages of Unalakleet, Shaktoolik and St. Michael, the Stebbins Community Association, and the Bering Straits Native Foundation.

Notice of Inventory Completion

2000, Klamath Indian Tribe of Oregon
Through consultation with representatives of the Klamath Indian Tribe of Oregon and the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma, human remains representing one individual were determined to be culturally affiliated with the Modoc Tribe. These remains were recovered from Ft. Klamath, Oregon at an unknown date by an unknown collector. In 1915, control of these remains was transferred from the University of Pennsylvania Museum to the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia. In 1961, control of the remains was transferred back to the University of Pennsylvania Museum. A relationship of shared group identity can be reasonably traced between these human remains and the Klamath Indian Tribe of Oregon and the Modoc Tribe of Oklahoma. After consultation, these remains were repatriated to the Klamath Indian Tribe of Oregon.

Notice of Inventory Completion

2000, Sac & Fox Tribe of Oklahoma
Through consultation with the NAGPRA Coordinator for the Sac and Fox Nation and other affiliated groups, the human remains of one individual were repatriated to the Sac and Fox Nation of Oklahoma. Accession documentation identified this individual as a "Native American shot in the Black Hawk War, 1905." These remains were removed from an unknown location at an unknown date by person(s) unknown. Prior to 1915, these human remains were received by the University of Pennsylvania Museum, and were transferred to the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia, in that same year. The remains were transferred back to the University of Pennsylvania Museum in 1961. While many Sac and Fox individuals were killed during the Black Hawk War, groups of Potawtomi, Winnebago, and Kickapoo are known to have allied themselves with the Sac and Fox during that conflict. These human remains were determined to be culturally affiliated with all of these groups. The Museum consultated with representatives of the Sac and Fox Nation, Oklahoma; the Sac and Fox Tribe of the Mississippi in Iowa; the Sac and Fox Nation of Missouri in Kansas and Nebraska; the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska; the Kickapoo Tribe of Indians of the Kickapoo Reservation in Kansas, and the Citizen Potawatomi Nation, Oklahoma. In addition, the Forest County Potawatami Community of Wisconsin Potawatomi Indians, Wisconsin; Huron Potawatomi, Inc., Michigan; the Pokagan Band of Potawatomi Indians of Michigan; the Prairie Band of Potawatomi Indians, Kansas; the Hannahville Indian Community of Wisconsin Potawatomie Indians of Michigan; the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas; and the Kickapoo Tribe of Oklahoma were invited to consult, but did not participate. The remains were repatriated to the Sac and Fox Nation of Oklahoma in February of 2000.

Notice of Inventory Completion

2000, Jamestown S'Klallam Tribe
On October 24, 2000 the Museum repatriated two human remains to the Jamestown S’Klallam Tribe of Sequim, Washington, the Port Gamble Indian Community of the Port Gamble Reservation, and the Lower Elwha Tribal Community of the lower Elwha Reservation. At an unknown date, human remains representing one individual were removed from Puget Sound, WA by Dr. David U. Egbert. In 1870 these human remains were donated to the Wistar Institute, Philadelphia. Based on the original accession information from the Wistar Institute, this individual was determined to be S'Klallam. The northwestern region of Puget Sound, which extends to the Dungeness River mouth, incorporates the traditional territory of the Port Gamble S'Klallam Reservation. In 1856, human remains representing a second individual were removed from Puget Sound, WA by an unknown individual and donated to the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia. In 1997, the control of these human remains was transferred to the University of Pennsylvania Museum. These remains were claimed by the tribes in May of 1998, and approved for repatriation by the Museum in July of 1998. In June of 2000 the tribes received a NAGPRA grant through the National Park Service that enabled a delegation of representatives to travel to Philadelphia to complete the repatriation and to review other collections of interest in the Museum. Upon receiving the remains, the tribal representatives conducted a brief ceremony on the grounds of the Museum. Throughout the repatriation process the Museum worked primarily with the S’Klallam Cultural Coordinator and representative of the Port Gamble and Lower Elwha communities.

Notice of Inventory Completion

1999, Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska
On October 25, 1999 the Museum repatriated two human remains to the Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska and the Ho-Chunk Nation of Wisconsin. During the 1850s these remains were removed from an unknown site by P. Gregg. In 1893, these human remains were acquired by the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA. In 1966, they were placed on loan to the University of Pennsylvania Museum and were officially transferred into the Museum in 1997. The Museum worked closely with David Lee Smith, Cultural Preservation Officer and historian of the Nebraska group to facilitate the return. Mr. Smith, who represents the Ho-Chunk of Wisconsin on repatriation matters, traveled to the Museum for a collections consultation in August of 1998.

Notice of Inventory Completion

1998, Oneida Nation of New York & Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin
Through consultation with the Oneida Nation of New York and the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin, the human remains of two individuals were determined to be culturally affiliated with both groups. In 1944, human remains representing two individuals were removed from the Ellenwood site, Munnsville, NY by Mr. (Elton?) Lake. In 1944, these human remains were donated to the University of Pennsylvania Museum by George Roberts of Sharon Hill, PA. No known individuals were identified. The four associated funerary objects included three iron fragments and mirror glass. Based on accession information and associated funerary objects, these individuals have been determined to be Native American from the early historic period. Based on historic documents, the Ellenwood site has been identified as an Oneida village and cemetery occupied during the 17th century. Representatives of the Oneida Indian Nation of New York presented geographical and historical evidence during consultation indicating cultural affiliation with the Ellenwood site. A relationship of shared group identity can be reasonably traced between these Native American human remains and associated funerary objects and the Oneida Indian Nation of New York and the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin. In agreement with the Oneida Tribe of Indians of Wisconsin these human remains were repatriated by the Oneida Nation of New York.

Notice of Inventory Completion

1998 & 2000, Cayuga Nation of New York
The Museum has repatriated three human remains to the Cayuga Nation of Versailles, New York. These consultations were conducted with the Seneca-Cayuga Tribe of Oklahoma and the Cayuga Nation of New York. The first transfer of two individuals occurred in April of 1998. Archival information from the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia indicated that one set of these remains was collected by Dr. Z. Pitcher during the 19th century in New York State. This individual has been identified as "Wan-Yun-ta, Chief of the Cayuga Tribe" of New York State. The second individual was excavated from a burial of a "young Cayuga Iroquois Chief" near Union Springs, Cayuga County, New York in 1894 by William W. Adams. The second repatriation was completed on April 27, 2000. In 1894, human remains representing one individual were excavated from a burial near Union Springs, Cayuga County, NY by William W. Adams, who donated these human remains to the Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, PA. In 1997, collections from the Academy of Natural Sciences (including these human remains) were transferred to the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology to facilitate the implementation of NAGPRA. In both instances, Mr. Clint Halftown, Cayuga Repatriation Officer, traveled to the Museum to receive the remains.

1998 Notice of Inventory Completion
2000 Notice of Inventory Completion

1994 & 2000, Chugach Alaska Corporation
The Museum’s largest repatriation of approximately 120 human remains has been to the Chugach Alaska Corporation. These remains were excavated by the Penn Museum in the regions of Prince William Sound and Kachemak Bay. Approximately eighty-five human remains were repatriated in 1994. Please refer to the Notice of Inventory Completion for the detailed collections histories related to this repatriation. An additional thirty-five human remains were repatriated in 2000. Please refer to the Notices of Inventory Completion 1999 and 2000, and the Notice of Intent to Repatriate 1999 for the detailed collections histories related to this repatriation. In both cases, the Museum worked closely with Mr. John F.C. Johnson, Member and Board of Directors of the Chugach Alaska Corporation, to facilitate the repatriations. Mr. Johnson traveled twice to Philadelphia. During his visit in 2000 he spoke publicly on a Penn radio broadcast about the importance of the return of human remains for Alaska’s Native peoples.

Please note: the 1994 repatriation notice is not available as it was posted prior to 1994 before the federal register began archiving notices.

Notice of Inventory Completion

1991, 1996, 1997, 1999, Hui Mālama I Nā Kūpuna O Hawai’i Nei
The University Museum has made four separate repatriation transfers totaling seventy-three human remains to Hui Mālama I Nā Kūpuna O Hawai’i Nei. All of the remains were part of the Samuel G. Morton Collection of the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia.

The first repatriation included an infant mummy collected in 1893 from a cave in Hanapeepee Valley, Kauai. The repatriation was completed by the Penn Museum on behalf of the Academy of Natural Sciences in August of 1991.

An additional sixty-two human remains were transferred on November 15, 1996. Please refer to the Notice of Inventory Completion for the detailed collection histories related to this repatriation. These remains were repatriated by the Penn Museum on behalf of the Academy of Natural Sciences.

An additional eight remains were repatriated on October 1, 1997. Please refer to the Notice of Inventory Completion for the detailed collection histories related to this repatriation. These remains were repatriated by the Penn Museum on behalf of the Academy of Natural Sciences.

Two human remains were transferred on September 29, 1999. In 1893, human remains representing two individuals were removed from "a lava cave on the island of Hawai'i" by Dr. J.M. Whitney. At an unknown date, Dr. C.N. Pierce donated these remains to the Academy of Natural Sciences of Philadelphia. One remain was officially transferred to the Penn Museum in 1998. The second human remain was officially transferred to the Penn Museum in 1999.

In each case, Hawaiian representatives traveled to Philadelphia to conduct repatriation ceremonies and to accompany the human remains to Hawaii.

Please note: the 1991 repatriation notice is not available as it was posted prior to 1994 before the federal register began archiving notices.

1996 Notice of Inventory Completion
1997 Notice of Inventory Completion
1999 Notice of Inventory Completion

1990, Zuni Pueblo
In 1990 the University of Pennsylvania Museum repatriated one war god (Ahuyu:da) and 14 associated objects to the community of Zuni Pueblo, New Mexico. Museum Curator Stuart Culin, had collected the war god on the Wanamaker Expedition of 1902 from collector R.C. H. Brock who had removed it from a shrine on Zuni’s Thunder Mountain. The staff of the Museum unanimously agreed that the war god should be returned to the Zuni people. On November 12, 1990, after it was deaccessioned by the Trustees of the University of Pennsylvania, the war god was transferred in a formal ceremony at the Museum to Zuni representatives Barton Martza, Head Councilman, Perry Tsadiasi, Bow Priest, and T.J. Ferguson of the Institute of the North American West. At a Museum seminar that afternoon, the Zuni representatives talked about their repatriation efforts and the importance of the Ahayu:da in maintaining balance and harmony in their community and the world.

 


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