logo
Open Tues–Sun, 10 am – 5 pm

Caracol, Belize expedition records

PU-Mu. 1109

Linton Satterthwaite, a professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania and Curator of the American Section of the University of Pennsylvania Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, conducted three trips to Caracol, Belize in the 1950s to investigate a previously unknown site of Maya culture. While his primary interest was in Maya inscriptions and chronology, his journeys to Caracol yielded artifacts for the Museum, including twenty-six vessels of the early classic period, nine vessels of the late period, Stela 11, a new "giant glyph" altar, and the bottom portion of Stela 3. The Caracol expedition collection consists of 16 boxes of correspondence, field notes and notes on individual stela, altars, and stones, glyph decipherment and chronology data, information for publication, and photographs and drawings including contact sheets and photographs from Caracol, Benque Viejo, and Cayo X. Satterthwaite organized and catalogued the photographs according to the type of film used, field numbers, and monument number. The collection also contains three file boxes of card notes to the photographs and a few pieces of oversized material. Satterthwaite's "The Monuments and Inscriptions of Caracol, Belize" with co-author Carl Beetz, was published after his death. The publication materials relate to his instructions and notes for publication and Beetz' collection of Satterthwaite's monument notes for the book.

Summary Information

Creator(s)Satterthwaite, Linton, 1897-1978
Date(s)[bulk] Bulk, 1950-1953
[inclusive] 1948-1973
Call NumberPU-Mu. 1109
Physical DescriptionExtent: 8.0 Linear feet The records are contained in sixteen archival boxes, six of which contain photographs, three small file boxes of card records, and some oversized drawings.
Language(s)eng

Biography / History

Linton Satterthwaite, Jr., associated with the University Museum for more than 30 years, was born in Trenton, New Jersey and educated in the public schools. After graduation from Trenton High School, Satterthwaite flew in World War I as a cadet and flying officer for the Royal Air Force. His education continued after the War and he attained his BA from Yale University in 1920. Satterthwaite supported himself as a reporter from 1920 to 1923 while attending law school. He practiced law briefly but enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania in 1929 to study Anthropology. Satterthwaite participated in expeditions in the Texas Panhandle, West Virginia, and Guatemala as an archaeological assistant from 1929 to 1931.

In 1932, Satterthwaite was named Assistant Director for the expedition in Piedras Negras Guatemala, becoming Field Director in 1933. He continued as Director until 1939. Satterthwaite was awarded his Ph.D.in Anthropology in 1943 then continued to pursue his area of major interest, Maya hieroglyphics and chronology. He served as project epigrapher in Tikal, Guatemala which investigated the carved inscriptions on Maya monuments.

Investigation into a possible expedition to Caracol, British Honduras (Belize) began in 1949 with a proposal being submitted in 1950. Satterthwaite headed three sessions in Caracol from 1950 to 1953. While concentrating on hieroglyphics and chronology in this previously unknown center of Maya culture, Satterthwaite's expedition also produced twenty-six vessels of the early classic period, nine vessels of the late period, Stela 11, a new "giant glyph" altar, and the bottom portion of Stela 3 for the Museum's collection.

In 1955, Satterthwaite became Curator of the American Section of the Penn Museum and a Professor in the Department of Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania. As Curator, Satterthwaite accomplished a systematic locational guide and inventory of the collections from the new world.

Satterthwaite published his findings from 1930 to 1962 in the Museum Bulletin as well as American Anthropologist, Science, American Antiquity, Scientific American, and Archaeology. In 1947, his work titled, "Concepts and Structures of Maya Calendrical Arithmetics" was published by the Museum and the Philadelphia Anthropological Society. Dr. Satterthwaite presented papers at scholarly meetings including, "Moon Ages and the Maya Inscriptions: the Problem of their Seven-day Range of Deviation from Calculated Mean Ages" at the Proceedings of the 29th International Congress of Americanists in 1951.

Satterthwaite retired from the Museum as Curator and Professor Emeritus in 1969. He died on March 11, 1978 having made significant contributions to the intricate study of Maya hieroglyphics and chronology. His volume on the Caracol expedition, co-authored by Carl Beetz, was published after his death.


Scope and Contents

Linton Satterthwaite, Jr., associated with the University Museum for more than 30 years, was born in Trenton, New Jersey and educated in the public schools. After graduation from Trenton High School, Satterthwaite flew in World War I as a cadet and flying officer for the Royal Air Force. His education continued after the War and he attained his BA from Yale University in 1920. Satterthwaite supported himself as a reporter from 1920 to 1923 while attending law school. He practiced law briefly but enrolled at the University of Pennsylvania in 1929 to study Anthropology. Satterthwaite participated in expeditions in the Texas Panhandle, West Virginia, and Guatemala as an archaeological assistant from 1929 to 1931.

In 1932, Satterthwaite was named Assistant Director for the expedition in Piedras Negras Guatemala, becoming Field Director in 1933. He continued as Director until 1939. Satterthwaite was awarded his Ph.D.in Anthropology in 1943 then continued to pursue his area of major interest, Maya hieroglyphics and chronology. He served as project epigrapher in Tikal, Guatemala which investigated the carved inscriptions on Maya monuments.

Investigation into a possible expedition to Caracol, British Honduras (Belize) began in 1949 with a proposal being submitted in 1950. Satterthwaite headed three sessions in Caracol from 1950 to 1958. While concentrating on Satterthwaite's major interest in hieroglyphics and chronology in this previously unknown center of Maya culture, the expedition also produced twenty-six vessels of the early classic period, nine vessels of the late period, Stela 11, a new "giant glyph" altar, and the bottom portion of Stela 3 for the Museum's collection. Satterthwaite was accompanied on the trip by architect Paul Beidler and Horace Willcox, a graduate student in Anthropology at the University of Pennsylvania.

Linton Satterthwaite worked and re-worked his data painstakingly. The collection reflects this in the numerous notes and changes suggested in his hand on different copies of similar documents. Similarly, the data is developed through charts and tables. The data that Dr. Satterthwaite reviewed for publication purposes bear his notes for textual, artistic and graphic excellence. Satterthwaite's notes for publication were compiled by Carl Beetz who co-authored "The Monuments and Description of Caracol, Belize", published after Linton Satterthwaite's death.

The collection consists of 10 archival boxes of administrative and financial records and correspondence, field notes and drawings, six archival boxes of photographs, contact sheets, and photographic catalogues (including photographs by Reuben Goldberg), three file boxes of card indexes to the photographs, and some oversized drawings. Satterthwaite organized and catalogued the photographs according to the type of film used, field number, and monument number.

In processing the collection, numerous thermofax records were reproduced on acid free paper. Several drawings were marked for possible conservation needs due to being folded or rolled. Many photos contained the remnants of tape or were taped together. The weight of the contact photos have resulted in the rippling of both the paper and photos. Staples were removed whenever possible. Original order was maintained for the drawings related to specific monuments.

The first two archival boxes contain administrative and financial records and correspondence filed alphabetically. The first box,(A to H), includes ten folders of financial statements, accounts, and freight information along with correspondence with the Government of Belize concerning the expedition. Satterthwaite's correspondence with District Commissioner A. Hamilton Anderson, Paul Beidler, and Leocadio E. Hopun, the Commission Agent for the expedition, are in this box. Box two of this group has nineteen folders(K to W)containing communication with Museum personnel including Froelich Rainey, J. Alden Mason, and Alfred Kidder II. Among the financial data are time sheets for workers, canceled checks, traveling expenses and budget estimates. Miscellaneous correspondence related to business matters are present with the financial data.

The Field notes and notebooks series contains the written records of the finds. Much of this data is accompanied by hand-written notes and drawings by Satterthwaite and later review of the data by Carl Beetz. These drawings were maintained in their original places. In addition to information on glyph classification and decipherment, there is information on "Individual reads of blocks of initial and lunar series in relation to Stela 15" and "Eliminations via Goodman's tun-ending table", and a paper, "The Initial Series of St.15, Caracol as Example of 'Deciphering' Damaged Inscriptions". A chart deals with "Tzolkin dates and year position numbers." The Field catalogues hold hand-written notes by Dr. Satterthwaite and include both field and museum numbers. Additional written material includes nine folders of information related to the Temple of the Wooden Lintel, the "Cluster Monuments" and "A" and "B" monuments. Satterthwaite's information on the naming and dating of the giant glyph altars accompanies the field notes and notebooks. Satterthwaite's analyses refer often to dedicatory dates and "Proskouriakoff Style Dates (SD)."

The series, Notes for Publication, has materials related to the individual stela and altars, often date reconstruction, glyph classification and chronology decipherment. Drawings are usually included however many are folded and have been marked for conservation assessment. The publication notes include, "Drawings for Publication"; "Miscellaneous Publication Notes"; and "Giant Glyph Altar Papers."

Linton Satterthwaite's photographic file catalogue is housed in three small file boxes. The three by five cards contain valuable details to locate pictures from the series. The cards contain notes about the shot, the people, and the events("first use of new lumber"),the placement of lighting, and the time of day the photograph was taken. All the cards are dated and include the roll number and print number. In addition to the stelae and altars, there are divisions for Aguada 5; Benque Viejo; Technics 1951; People; and Miscellaneous. The dividers for "Country" and "Moving monuments" do not have cards corresponding to these titles.

The photograph series begins with a group of contact sheets. The two inch by three inch photographs are mounted six to a page. The pages have rippled from the weight of the photographs and storage issues. Some conservation may be needed. There are seven books that serve as guides to the photographs including those taken by Reuben Goldberg, the Museum photographer. The photographs are designated by size and the type of film used; S(mall), L(arge), V(erachrome), K(odachrome), P(antachrome). The 1953 photographs are designated either series X or series K followed by the number of the print.

Almost all of the major stelae, altars, stones and monuments have been photographed, some from all angles. Stela four photographs are marked "from the Goldberg negatives" with the negative number. Some of these photographs are fragile, damaged, or have marks from tape. Several large, folded drawings, "from Goldberg", have condition issues. There are a group of publicity photographs of the monuments being delivered to the Museum. In addition to photographs from Caracol, there are photographs from Bienque Viejo and Cayo X. Satterthwaite grouped some oversize drawings with the photographs. They have been folded into much smaller units and might need to be assessed for conservation and placed with the oversize materials.

The Plans and Drawings which Satterthwaite maintained separately from the notes are located in Box 13. They begin with six small, unlabeled photographs in an envelope. Eight by ten drawing photographs depict the slate stela fragments for Stela 4 and Stone Group 46 and 50. The plans show the area and placement of bones and fragments. A composite longitudinal section of the approximate position of tomb 2 is included with the plans. Another drawing, enlarged, shows the location of Stela 20 in relation to Stone 61 and Stela 2. A large diagram of the site has been marked for possible conservation assessment due to surface cracking and ripped edges.

Oversized materials, stored separately, include an original 1967 drawing by Virginia Greene of the front of Stela 5 which has been folded and is ripped. A note from "L.S." indicates that the drawing has been "inked and photo'd" in September 1967. Additional oversized material includes three drawings of Stela 4, front and Stela 4, reconstructed view. Four drawings of Stela 14, front view and three drawings of Stela 5 are represented. All have negative numbers.

.


Administration Info

Publication Information: University of Pennsylvania: Penn Museum Archives, 10/30/09

Finding Aid Author: Finding aid prepared by Jody Rodgers

Revision Description: 2/23/12

Use Restrictions: Although many items from the archives are in the public domain, copyright may be retained by the authors of items in these papers, or their descendants, as stipulated by United States copyright law. The user is fully responsible for compliance with relevant copyright law.


Controlled Access Headings

Form(s)/Genre(s)

Geographic Name(s)

Personal Name(s)

Subject(s)


Collection Inventory

Administrative and financial records and correspondence

Accounts (1949-1950), Box 1
Anderson, A. Hamilton 1951-1956 (1 of 2), Box 1
Anderson, A. Hamilton 1956-1967 (2 of 2), Box 1
Beidler, Paul, 1950-1952Box 1
Belize Estate and Produce Co., 1950-1953Box 1
Caracol-Anderson visit 1938, Box 1
Financial statements 1950-1951, Box 1
Freight 1951-1953, Box 1
Government 1949-1953, Box 1
Hopun, Leocadio E., 1950-1958Box 1
Kidder II, Alfred, 1950-1953Box 2
Madeira, Percy C., 1951-1952Box 2
Mason, J. Alden, 1950-1951Box 2
Melhado, Henry, 1950-1953Box 2
Miscellaneous-Business 1950-1953 (1 of 3), Box 2
Miscellaneous-Correspondence 1950-1956 (2 of 3), Box 2
Miscellaneous-Memos, Reports 1950-1951 (3 of 3), Box 2
Opinions and Advice 1949-1951, Box 2
Palacio, J.O., 1972-1973Box 2
Personnel 1950, Box 2
Schmidt, Peter J., 1970-1973Box 2
Sylvestre, Louis M., 1950-1953Box 2
Who's Who-People, 1951-1953Box 2
Willcox, Horace (1 of 2), 1947-1951Box 2
Willcox, Horace-Field Notes (2 of 2), 1951-1952Box 2
Equipment, Packing and Financial 1951 (1 of 3), Box 2
Equipment, Packing and Financial 1950-1953 (2 of 3), Box 2
Equipment, Packing and Financial 1951-1953 (3 of 3), Box 2

Field Notes and notebooks

Object Catalogue-Pottery 1953 only, Box 3
Caracol object catalogue 1953 (1 of 2), Box 3
Caracol object catalogue 1953 (2 of 2), Box 3
Bag and study sheets 1950-1953, Box 3
Ca20, Ca36, Bur.1 and 2 1953, Box 3
Field catalogue 1950-1951 (1 of 2), Box 3
Field catalogue 1950-1951 (2 of 2), Box 3
Bur. 2 and 3, Final Text 1951-1953, Box 3
Obsolete material 1951-1953, Box 3
B-1, Bur.2 1951-1953, Box 4
Map data 1951-1954 (1 of 2), Box 4
Map data 1951-1954 (2 of 2), Box 4
Map tracings/plans Group A and B 1951-1953, Box 4
Epstein Notebooks 1953 (1 of 2), Box 4
Epstein Map notes 1953 (2 of 2), Box 4
Book 2, Notes for G.G. altars 1951-1953 (1 of 2), Box 4
Book 2, Notes for G.G. altars 1951-1953 (2 of 2), Box 4
F-1,lists, data on readings 1951-1953 (1 of 2), Box 5
F-1 lists, data on readings 1951-1953 (2 of 2), Box 5
Data on various stelae 1951-1953, Box 5
Stela, Altar drawings, set "X" 1951-1953, Box 5
Data on readings 5 1951-1953 (1 of 2), Box 5
Data on readings 5 1951-1953 (2 of 2), Box 5
Contact sheets 1950 (1 of 3), Box 5
Contact sheets 1950 (2 of 3), Box 5
Contact sheets 1950 (3 of 3), Box 5
Unclassified stones 1951-1953, Box 5
Photograph lists Stelae 1950-1951, Box 5
Stelae Inscriptions/Goldberg photograph lists 1950-1951, Box 5
Photo books 1 to 3, 1950, Box 5
Photo catalogues 1 and 2, 1951, Box 5
Photo notebooks "K" and "X" series 1953, Box 5
Photo enlargements Stelae 16,17,18, Altar 10 1953-1954, Box 6
Data on readings 1952-1955 (1 of 2), Box 6
Data on readings 1952-1955 (2 of 2), Box 6
Drawings, lists stelae and altars 1964-1967 (1 of 2), Box 6
Drawings, lists stelae and altars 1964-1967 (2 of 2), Box 6
Field photo enlargement lists 1955, Box 6
Chronology tables 1964-1972, Box 6
Control notes 1972, Box 6
Data on Stelae, Altars 1951-1955 (1 of 2), Box 6
Data on Stelae, Altars 1952-1956 (2 of 2), Box 6
Drawings, monuments and pottery 1951-1954, Box 6
Bulletins and articles 1951-1967,

Notes for publication (inclusive: 1950-1972)

Stelae 15 and 21, Box 10
Stela 4, Box 10
Stone group 46, 46-50, Box 10
Stela 2 and 11, Box 10
Altar 13 and Stela 6-Glyphs, Box 10
Altar 12, Box 10
Altar 10, Box 10
Stela 8, Box 10
Stela 19, Box 10
Stela 3, Box 10
Stela 4, Box 10
Stela 6, Box 10
Stelae 9 and 10, Box 10
Stela 14, drawing connections, Box 10
Stela 16, front, Box 10
Drawings for photocopying, Box 10
Miscellaneous publication notes, Box 10
Giant glyph altar papers, Box 10

Photographic file catalogue (inclusive: 1950-1953)

Photo catalogue cards (1 of 3), Box file 1
Photo catalogue cards (2 of 3), Box file 2
Photo catalogue cards (3 of 3), Box file 3

Photographs

Stela 1, Box 11
Stela 2, Box 11
Stela 3 front (1 of 4), Box 11
Stela 3 back (2 of 4), Box 11
Stela 3 back (3 of 4), Box 11
Stela 3 top/cast (4 of 4), Box 11
Stela 4, Box 11
Stela 5 details (1 of 5), Box 11
Stela 5 details (2 of 5), Box 11
Stela 5 fragments (3 of 5), Box 11
Stela 5 overall view (4 of 5), Box 11
Stela 5 recreation (5 of 5), Box 11
Stela 6 (1 of 2), Box 11
Stela 6 (2 of 2), Box 11
Stela 15, Box 12
Stela 16 back (1 of 5), Box 12
Stela 16 back (2 of 5), Box 12
Stela 16 front (3 of 5), Box 12
Stela 16 front (4 of 5), Box 12
Stela 16 front (5 of 5), Box 12
Stela 17 fragments (1 of 3), Box 12
Stela 17 fragments (2 of 3), Box 12
Stela 17 overall view (3 of 3), Box 12
Stela 19, Box 12
Stela 18, Box 12
Stela 20, Box 12
Stela 21, Box 12
Altar 1, Box 12
Altar 2, Box 12
Altar 3, Box 12
Altar 4, Box 13
Altar 5, Box 13
Altar 6, Box 13
Altar 7, Box 13
Altar 10, Box 13
Altar 12 (1 of 2), Box 13
Altar 12 (2 of 2), Box 13
Altar 13, Box 13
Altar 14, Box 13
Altar 15, Box 13
Altar 17, Box 13
Altar 19, Box 13
Stone 8, Box 13
Stone 28, Box 13
Stone group 46, Box 13
Stone 56, Box 13
Stone 60, Box 13
Structure A-6, Box 13
Structure C-4, Box 13
Miscellaneous prints, Box 13
Removal of stones, Box 13
Caracol camp and personnel, Box 13
"L" series contacts (1 of 3), . pages 1 to 33Box 13
"L" series contacts (2 of 3), . pages 34 to 67Box 13
"L" series contacts (3 of 3), . pages 67 to 87Box 13
"S" series contacts (1 of 4), . 5.S.1 to 13.S.12Box 14
"S" series contacts (2 of 4), . 14.S.1 to 21.S.12Box 14
"S" series contacts (3 of 4), . 22.S.1 to 44.S.6Box 14
"S" series contacts (4 of 4), . 44.S.7 to 60.S.12Box 14
"L" series prints (1 of 3), . Rolls 1 to 5Box 14
"L" series prints (2 of 3), . Rolls 6 to 10Box 14
"L" series prints (3 of 3), . Rolls 11 to 13Box 14
"S" series prints (1 of 3), . Rolls 7 to 24Box 14
"S" series prints (2 of 3), . Rolls 29 to 38Box 14
"S" series prints (3 of 3), . Rolls 44 to 60Box 14
"V" series prints (1 of 2), . Rolls 8 to 19Box 14
"V" series prints (2 of 2), . Rolls 8 to 19Box 14
Stela 6 front (1 of 2), Box 15
Stela 6 front (2 of 2), Box 15
Stela 6 fragments, Box 15
Stela 7, Box 15
Stela 8, Box 15
Stela 9, Box 15
Stela 10 (1 of 2), Box 15
Stela 10 (2 of 2), Box 15
Stela 11 (1 of 2), Box 15
Stela 11 (2 of 2), Box 15
Stela 13 (1 of 2), Box 15
Stela 13 (2 of 2), Box 15
Stela 14 overall view, Box 15
Stela 14 details (1 of 4), Box 15
Stela 14 details (2 of 4), Box 15
Stela 14 details (3 of 4), Box 15
Steal 14 details (4 of 4), Box 15
"X" series prints (1 of 4), . X.1.1 to X.15.6Box 16
"X" series prints (2 of 4), . X.15.7 to X.28.11Box 16
"X" series prints (3 of 4), . X.28.12 to C 37Box 16
"X" series prints (4 of 4), . C38 to CU142Box 16
Benque Viejo drawings 1970, . Structure A6Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (1 of 12), . Series "P" roll 3Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (2 of 12), . "V"12 roll 1Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (3 of 12), . Series "V" roll 21Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (4 of 12), . Series "V" roll 24Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (5 of 12), . Series "V" roll 32Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (6 of 12), . Series "V" roll 35Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (7 of 12), . Series "V" rolls 37 and 38Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (8 of 12), . Series "V" roll 39Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (9 of 12), . Series "V" roll 40Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (10 of 12), . Series "V" roll 42Box 16
Benque Viejo prints (11 of 12), . No roll numbersBox 16
Benque Viejo prints (12 of 12), . Miscellaneous site photographsBox 16
Cayo X prints, . Series "V" roll 28Box 16

Plans and drawings

Container: Box 13

Oversize materials